N. S. Sanath Kumar was a research fellow at Indian Institute of anagement, Bengaluru from 1981 to March, 2013. His key areas of interest include elementary education and literacy, and voca- tional education and skill development. He specializes in large- scale research studies. He is involved in consultancies to the World Bank, National Literacy Mission, Ministry of Human Re- sources Development, and other state government agencies. He has authored several research publications. He can be reached at [email protected].